段落是論文的最基本組成部分,一篇論文可以說是由不同長短的段落組成的。

究竟何谓段落?

段落是一個包涵一連串與某一主旨相關的句子的寫作單位,有助於組織論文架構。其實,段落結構就是整篇論文結構的濃縮版本,亦包括引言 (introduction)、內文 (body)以及總結 (conclusion)。

你可以把段落結構想像成漢堡。

想像成漢堡的段落結構

A. 主題句 (Topic sentence)

每一段的第一句主要是介紹該段落的主旨或概念,它可以告知讀者該段落想要表達的是什麼。而且在大部分情況下,段落的首句都與前一段相呼應,從而起到承接上文的作用。

看一看以下的示範段落:

Unfortunately, significant problems and limitations exist in the current treatment of children with ADHD. Treatment with stimulants produces side effects, such as sleep problems and loss of appetite, and thus is not ideal or recommended for very young children (Corcoran, 2011; Faraone, Biederman, Morley, & Spencer, 2008). Although pharmacotherapy and behavioural management generally improve parent and teacher reports of children’s social skills, once treatments stop, so too do children’s improvements (MTA Cooperative Group, 2004). Moreover, when parents are stressed or dealing with their own mental health issues, they may not be able to properly implement the skills learned in behaviour training, resulting in more frustration and negative reinforcement of the parent–child conflict (Bögels, Hellemans, van Deursen, Römer, & van der Meulen, 2014). Therefore, it is imperative to investigate other psychosocial interventions that can improve the well-being of the entire family system.

上面段中紅色的句子是主題句,並與前一段落中的資料有關聯,主要引述專注力失調及過度活躍症的治療方法,同時它亦介紹了這一段要討論的主旨–那些治療方法的局限。

撰寫主題句的訣竅:

  • 當你需要引述前一段中的資料時,你要清楚肯定要引述的內容是什麼。
  • 避免使用如 ‘it’ 或 ‘they’ 等的代名詞,以及避免使用 ‘former’ 或 ‘latter’ 以免引起誤會。

 

B. 後續句子 (Subsequent sentences)

後續句子相當於漢堡的餡料,其主要用處是繼續鋪陳主旨,以及提供額外資料去闡述、解釋、辯護和分析論點。

回到之前的同一個示範段落,

Unfortunately, significant problems and limitations exist in the current treatment of children with ADHD. Treatment with stimulants produces side effects, such as sleep problems and loss of appetite, and thus is not ideal or recommended for very young children (Corcoran, 2011; Faraone, Biederman, Morley, & Spencer, 2008). Although pharmacotherapy and behavioural management generally improve parent and teacher reports of children’s social skills, once treatments stop, so too do children’s improvements (MTA Cooperative Group, 2004). Moreover, when parents are stressed or dealing with their own mental health issues, they may not be able to properly implement the skills learned in behaviour training, resulting in more frustration and negative reinforcement of the parent–child conflict (Bögels, Hellemans, van Deursen, Römer, & van der Meulen, 2014). Therefore, it is imperative to investigate other psychosocial interventions that can improve the well-being of the entire family system.

這次紅色的句子是後續句子,它們為主題句提出的段落主旨提供來自文獻的支持證據。每一句後續句子都簡單概括了為什麼在前一段提到的治療方法不適當,從而建立起一個強而有力的論點。

關於制作你的「漢堡餡料」的小提示:

  • 要遵從單一的主題。以上面的示範段落作例,如果作者在同一段中同時討論那些治療方法的優點和缺點,這樣讀者會很容易感到混亂的。

 

C. 結束句 (Final sentence)

結束句相當於漢堡底部的麵包,總結段落中的資料,有時間更會為後面的段落提供連接點。

再回到同一個示範段落:

Unfortunately, significant problems and limitations exist in the current treatment of children with ADHD. Treatment with stimulants produces side effects, such as sleep problems and loss of appetite, and thus is not ideal or recommended for very young children (Corcoran, 2011; Faraone, Biederman, Morley, & Spencer, 2008). Although pharmacotherapy and behavioural management generally improve parent and teacher reports of children’s social skills, once treatments stop, so too do children’s improvements (MTA Cooperative Group, 2004). Moreover, when parents are stressed or dealing with their own mental health issues, they may not be able to properly implement the skills learned in behaviour training, resulting in more frustration and negative reinforcement of the parent–child conflict (Bögels, Hellemans, van Deursen, Römer, & van der Meulen, 2014). Therefore, it is imperative to investigate other psychosocial interventions that can improve the well-being of the entire family system.

這一次,段尾的句子為在後面的段落將會提及關於是次研究的簡介進行鋪陳。

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最後,在此分享幾個有關寫作段落要注意的地方和小提示:

  1. 要多組合使用不同長短的句子。
  2. 盡量避免用過長的句子,一般不超過35字 。
  3. 在同一句句子中,盡量只圍繞一個或最多兩個主題。

希望你現在能夠多少掌握一些關於如何組織段落大綱的具體資訊。


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